The ancient city of Pompeii, the death and the fate of the city
The ancient city of Pompeii was founded in the 6th century BC If not for the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius, which burned the entire city to the ground, covering it with a huge layer of volcanic ash, Pompeii would still have existed near Naples. Now it is the ruins of which are UNESCO listed in the world heritage list.
The name of Pompeii had arisen after the merger of five independent cities (pumpe – five). This is a more plausible version. There is a legend that Hercules in a hard battle defeated the giant Geryon, and then solemnly walked through the city, celebrating the victory. With ancient Greek language pumpe – Grand, triumphal procession.
In those days people believed in God, and believed that the gods controlled earthly cataclysms. Despite the fact that on 5 February 62 ad, there was a severe earthquake, which could give rise to the eruption of the volcano, people still continued to live in the city, worship the gods, and believing that will never happen misfortune. Yet the volcano erupted. It happened on August 24 79 ad Suffered not only Pompeii but also the nearby towns Herculaneum, Stabiae. The eruption was so strong that the ashes reached even to the neighbouring States of Egypt and Syria. The city lived about 20 thousand people. Some managed to escape before the disaster, but many died. The exact number of victims is unknown, but the remains of the bodies were found far outside of the city.
Herodotus was under a layer of ashes for hundreds of years until in 1592 Domenico Fontana (well-known architect of that time) came across the city wall during the laying of the channel from the river Sarno. No one betrayed this wall is of great importance, and only after about 100 years in the ruins of Pompeii was found a plaque, with carved on it the inscription – “Pompeii”. Even after this incident no one could have imagined that this ancient city which disappeared from the face of the earth. Concluded that it is an old Villa of Pompey the Great.
And in 1748 began the retrieval of the ancient city. The excavation was directed by Alcubierre . who was sure that the city Stabia. In the same Pompeii was made only three excavations in different places. Alcubierre was a barbarian, and all the findings that, in his opinion, was of interest, he was sent to the Naples Museum, while others simply destroyed. Many scientists protested, and the excavations stopped.
In 1760, began new excavations, which were led by F. VEGA . They lasted until 1804. As many as 44 year VEGA and his subordinates spent on the retrieval of works of art. All the finds were restored and re-extracted very carefully. At this time, here have already begun to gather tourists, so many of the monuments are not immediately passed to the museums, and left on display to visitors of the city of Pompeii, which has already become a Museum.
In 1863, excavations continued. This time they were headed by Giuseppe Fiorelli . It opened a huge number of voids under layers of ash. It is not that other, as the bodies of the inhabitants of the city. Bay these voids with plaster scientists fully reproduce the casts of human bodies, right down to facial expressions.
Currently, the city Museum of Pompeii is open 75% . and scientists have yet to make new discoveries. Of course, I want to remember the famous painting by Karl Pavlovich Bryullov – the Last day of Pompeii.