In the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, presents rare works of art belonging to ancient civilizations in different regions from Balkans to Africa, from Anatolia and Mesopotamia to Arab Peninsula and Afghanistan that were part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1881, six years after the transfer of the Imperial Museum of antiquities and weapons from the Church. Irina in the pavilion was Repaired its Director was a prominent Turkish intellectual, artist and archaeologist Osman Hamdi Bey (1842-1910). The new Director has actively worked to transform the Museum . resembling just a warehouse of antique items of various values. Under his leadership, the archaeological excavations on the territory of the Ottoman Empire enriched the collection of the Museum many priceless masterpieces.
In 1891 under the order of Osman Hamdi Bey in Istanbul the famous architect, educated in Paris, Alexander Valluri (1850-1921) built a new building of the Archaeological Museum . called the Museum of sarcophagi (Asar-ı-Atika). In 1903, in connection with the increase in the number of exhibits were added the North wing, and in 1907 and South. In the design of the façade of this neoclassical building is clearly traced the motifs of the style of the most famous exhibits is the sarcophagus of Alexander and the Wailers. In one hundred years (1991) to meet the needs of a modern Museum . to the South-Eastern facade of the old Archaeological Museum prystailove, six-story building, first two floors are used as storage. The greatest interest among the exhibits on display in the old building of the Archaeological Museum are the marble sarcophagi of Royal (IV BC) from the necropolis of Sidon (Sidon, Lebanon). This is the sarcophagus of Sidon Abdalonymos called sarcophagus of Alexander the great, because the decorative friezes on its two long sides depict the scenes of battle and hunting with the participation of the great commander. And the tomb of STRATO, called the sarcophagus of the mourning women, because of the abundance of the weeping inmates of the harem of the voluptuous lords. There is also a collection of sculpture from the archaic period to the Byzantine Empire. The results of archaeological excavations in the valley of the Meander, Aphrodisias, Ephesus, Miletus and Manisa. Continue reading
The ancient Chinese were placed in burials of the bronze utensils to indicate the status of the relatives of the deceased
Archaeologists have proposed an alternative explanation for why ancient Chinese were placed in the graves of bronze and clay utensils. This was done not only to emphasize the status of the deceased, but also to increase the prestige of his heirs in the eyes of other members of the community.
Scientists engaged in the study of ancient Chinese ritual utensils of the bronze age (2100-221 BC), traditionally seen it as a way to establish social status of the deceased. The objects were placed in tombs, can be divided into two groups. First, it is carefully made of clay or bronze ritual vessels “lice”, which could be used with a practical purpose. The largest number was found “lice” refers to the period 1400-150 BC
The second group of ritual objects are things that due to brittle material or of irregular shape could not be used in life and were made specifically for placement in the grave. To such subjects – “mince” – include, for example, small terracotta figures.
In the burials Dating from the fourth century BC “mince” are often copies of “lice” and are richly decorated pottery vessels, reminiscent of the bronze samples.
Specialisto Chinese bronze and ceramics Joey Beckman from Beloit College (USA, Wisconsin) studied burials in the South of Hubei province, Dating back to IV–III centuries BC and belonged to the Chu Kingdom. The purpose of Professor Beckman was the study of objects placed in graves, and the explanation of the role played by two “sets” of these subjects: “mince and lice”. With the results of her work can be found in the journal Antiquity . Continue reading
The ancient city of Pompeii was founded in the 6th century BC If not for the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius, which burned the entire city to the ground, covering it with a huge layer of volcanic ash, Pompeii would still have existed near Naples. Now it is the ruins of which are UNESCO listed in the world heritage list.
The name of Pompeii had arisen after the merger of five independent cities (pumpe – five). This is a more plausible version. There is a legend that Hercules in a hard battle defeated the giant Geryon, and then solemnly walked through the city, celebrating the victory. With ancient Greek language pumpe – Grand, triumphal procession.
In those days people believed in God, and believed that the gods controlled earthly cataclysms. Despite the fact that on 5 February 62 ad, there was a severe earthquake, which could give rise to the eruption of the volcano, people still continued to live in the city, worship the gods, and believing that will never happen misfortune. Yet the volcano erupted. It happened on August 24 79 ad Suffered not only Pompeii but also the nearby towns Herculaneum, Stabiae. The eruption was so strong that the ashes reached even to the neighbouring States of Egypt and Syria. The city lived about 20 thousand people. Some managed to escape before the disaster, but many died. The exact number of victims is unknown, but the remains of the bodies were found far outside of the city.
Herodotus was under a layer of ashes for hundreds of years until in 1592 Domenico Fontana (well-known architect of that time) came across the city wall during the laying of the channel from the river Sarno. No one betrayed this wall is of great importance, and only after about 100 years in the ruins of Pompeii was found a plaque, with carved on it the inscription – “Pompeii”. Even after this incident no one could have imagined that this ancient city which disappeared from the face of the earth. Concluded that it is an old Villa of Pompey the Great. Continue reading